dissabte, 30 de juny de 2018

UN BON ACORD DE NEGOCIACIÓ COL.LECTIVA

Us deixo l'article publicat el dijous 28 a eldiario.es.

EL CLIMA DE DIALOGO SE EXTIENDE


Como sucede con otros aspectos de la vida el clima político es un factor contagioso. Lo estamos constatando en las últimas semanas. No se trata de creer en los poderes  taumatúrgicos de la moción de censura, pero sin duda se esta produciendo una discontinuidad positiva en el clima social y político del país.

En un espacio muy breve de tiempo se ha pasado de estar totalmente empantanados a un inicio de desenpantanamiento. Lento y sin garantías pero esperanzador. Se percibe una sensación parecida a la que produce abrir las ventanas de un espacio largamente cerrado y en el que el ambiente se había convertido en irrespirable.

El bloqueo parlamentario del último año parece evolucionar hacia la posibilidad de que se abra un debate efectivo sobre leyes de gran trascendencia, como la de la eutanasia o la de Seguridad Ciudadana (Ley Mordaza) entre otras.

El lenguaje agresivo y en ocasiones con expresiones casi bélicas que primaba en el conflicto catalán ha evolucionado a manifestaciones de cierta empatía hacia el otro, donde antes solo había criminalización. Allí donde el debate lo marcaban las posiciones más maximalistas, ahora estas han quedado fuera de juego, muy descolocadas y con menos margen para mantener la estrategia de crispación.

Seria ingenuo pensar que existe un único hilo conductor que todo lo liga. Pero también seria torpe no darnos cuenta que la dinámica conflictual que durante años viene marcando este país puede estar abriendo la puerta a un mayor espacio para el dialogo, las negociaciones, los acuerdos o los pactos de desacuerdo.

El conflicto es una buena argamasa de la democracia y cohesiona las sociedades mucho más de lo que parece, pero su potencialidad es mayor si va acompañada de la capacidad de conducir los conflictos hacia acuerdos.

Por eso es una muy buena noticia que se haya alcanzado un preacuerdo entre las organizaciones sindicales y empresariales sobre negociación colectiva y relaciones laborales, que es de esperar se ratifique y suscriba en los próximos días.

Ante la gravedad de los problemas provocados por la Gran Recesión económica y las políticas que se impusieron para darle respuesta, puede parecer un acuerdo modesto, pero tiene mimbres y mucha potencialidad de desarrollo futuro. 

Nuestro país tiene problemas importantes y quizás el más grave sea que hemos salido de la recesión económica con mucha más desigualdad social de la que teníamos en el 2008. Una desigualdad que se percibe nítidamente en la distribución injusta de los beneficios de la recuperación, que no están alcanzando a las personas trabajadoras, especialmente a las que carecen de recursos formativos.

Se trata de una cuestión de justicia social y también democrática, porque la desigualdad estructural y enquistada suele actuar como el principal corrosivo de la democracia.

Nuestra desigualdad social tiene dos epicentros muy nítidos. La que se genera en el lugar de trabajo, fruto de una primera distribución primaria de la renta muy desequilibrada, especialmente a partir del impacto de la Reforma Laboral del 2012.  Y la que se localiza en un sistema fiscal cadavérico que, desde hace años, no cumple la función de redistribuir de manera progresiva la renta.

El Acuerdo Estatal de Negociación Colectiva para los años 2018-2020 aporta novedades importantes. La que va a tener más repercusión mediática es la salarial y no es para menos, porque contiene compromisos de empresarios y sindicatos para que los convenios colectivos recojan incrementos salariales para los próximos años que permitan recuperar parte del poder adquisitivo perdido. Siempre con el permiso de la inflación –un factor incierto de la economía en los próximos años. Y por eso es positivo que en el acuerdo se hable de las clausulas de revisión salarial de los convenios, aunque su formulación sea excesivamente genérica y su concreción deba producirse convenio a convenio.

Me parece muy significativo el compromiso de llegar a finales del 2020 con un salario mínimo de todos los convenios de 14.000 € anuales. No solo por lo que significa de mejora de los salarios más bajos sino por la incidencia que puede acabar teniendo en la fijación legal del SMI y en la mejora de las bases mínimas de cotización que tanta falta nos hace.

Y sobre todo porque significa que las organizaciones sindicales han puesto la fuerza de los trabajadores organizados al servicio de la mejora de las personas trabajadoras con menos capacidad de hacerse oír y de negociar.

El acuerdo trasluce una sensación de que por fin las organizaciones empresariales han comenzado a entender que las políticas de precariedad incentivan el dumping social y no interesan a nadie. Ojalá sea así y no se trate de un espejismo, pero el acuerdo de salario mínimo convenio, y los compromisos de mantener la aplicación de los convenios una vez acabada su vigencia, minimizando así los efectos nefastos de la Reforma Laboral del 2012, parecen ir en la buena dirección.

También es una buena noticia que se proponga una nueva regulación de la subcontratación (artículo 42 del Estatuto de los Trabajadores) con el objetivo de acotar los procesos de externalización productiva y evitar que, como dice el acuerdo, se “incentive la competencia desleal entre empresas y el deterioro de las condiciones de empleo”.

Este aspecto viene recogido en un Anexo que las organizaciones sindicales y empresariales han firmado y remiten a las negociaciones tripartitas con el Gobierno. En él se incluyen propuestas muy interesantes como la creación de una nueva prestación social que incentive las reducciones temporales de jornada como alternativa al uso de los despidos en las crisis empresariales, que permita garantizar el empleo, impulsar medidas de flexibilidad, fomentar la formación y el reciclaje y no penalizar a los trabajadores en su derecho a la prestaciones de desempleo.

Estas y otras materias podrían formar parte de un futuro acuerdo tripartito de concertación laboral que aborde cambios en la Reforma Laboral del 2012, especialmente en lo que se refiere a devolver la fuerza vinculante a la negociación colectiva sectorial, que es el espacio en el que las personas trabajadores construyen solidaridad entre ellas.

Un acuerdo tripartito que el Gobierno deberá trabajar, pero en el que no se puede escudar para no hacer nada. Es evidente que la mayoría de 180 votos que apoyaron la moción de censura coincide en el modelo de relaciones laborales, pero el Gobierno tiene la obligación de conseguir mayorías para sacar adelante medidas tan urgentes como necesarias.

En resumen un acuerdo que puede contribuir a mejorar el clima social y sobre todo las condiciones de trabajo, que buena falta nos hace. Por razones de justicia social y también democráticas.        


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